As I’m finishing this up, the Summer Games Done Quick event of 2016 has just started – you should watch it.
I’ve dealt with some physics simulation issues lately that I wanted to talk about – this is probably going to be less coherent than usual since it is essentially a multitude of solutions to a problem that good system design would have prevented in the first place, but it has been a big enough deal for Backworlds development that it feels worth discussing.
There are plenty of ways in which content – specifically textures in this case – can be optimized for memory and performance. While on a small team every developer should have a good idea of what kind of impact their craft has on others and be able to account for that in their work, it is also important that preemptively optimizing content does not take up time that could be better spent working on its quality.
On Backworlds, we accept any kind of format textures and when memory or performance is a concern we optimize them in a build step – normally I would save this kind of work until late in the project but since we have already released a prototype, a demo and run playtest builds the build system has grown to be pretty big. Read on for some of the things we do to automatically optimize textures.
Keeping the trend of “things that have been disproportionately helpful” from my last technology posts, today I am going to talk a bit about why curves are awesome. I am a bit late to the party on this one so if you have been working with particle effects during the last five years or at all with animations then chances are this post will not give you a lot of new insights. Sorry!
The Backworlds editor is, as we’ve previously mentioned, a set of menus in the game itself allowing us to make changes to the levels as they are being played – rather than being built from the ground up as a level building instrument it has been patched together over time as tool for manipulating game data within the context of the game. While this has the advantage of really short iteration times, it has the disadvantage of being slightly inconsistent and with a quirkier workflow than an actual level editor. I am no expert in either usability or data mangling, but for a small project such as ours I have noted a few small changes that had a big effect on workflow.
Apologies for missing last month’s update – this was partly due to a personal hardship, lack of time due to day jobs and other obligations and – to be quite honest – a lack of things to write about. We have been refining designs for some time now and while it can certainly be interesting to look at individual puzzles and see how we changed them in response to playtest feedback, doing so now would be premature as we are not done with them. Also, it would spoil the puzzles themselves.
This month, I am going to tell you an anecdote about a bug hunt that was somewhat amusing as it illustrates the cascading effects small changes can have on a codebase.
One of the things I am currently working on is an architectural change to the engine- previously, our most basic graphic object would be rendered with a 2-component vector designating position (translation in OpenGL terms) and another 2-component vector designating orientation, or rotation and scale. This has worked fine for us so far, but it means we have to modify the vertex geometry of the object if we want to do nonuniform scaling or shearing. Petri and Martin talked about “juice” in a great GDC talk from a few years back, and in order to make the game more juicy I thought about the 12 principles of animation – more specifically squash/stretch – which meant we needed more options. Thus, the basic graphic transformation is now described by a 2×3 matrix just like fixed-function pipeline uses 3×4 (4×4 actually, usually only the first three columns are relevant for world transform) to give us more options.
Now, I normally do not like to talk about features that are in such early stages of development – there is simply nothing here to look at, and if it doesn’t pan out there’s not much to learn from it. We do a lot of experiments in code as well as in design, and a good chunk of that work will never see the light of day. Doing this change, however, gives me an opportunity to talk a little bit about the history of the engine and the KISS principle which, when I have interviewed and evaluated engineers in the past, has been a common problem for inexperienced software engineers.
The kind of work we do can be very sporadic in that we wear many different hats as developers and without any strong deadlines we are free to experiment with things we may want to add further down the line. While being detrimental to progress (and, to be honest, maybe the biggest reason why we’ve spent so long on this), it does mean we are free to work on what we like. Enthusiasm is important too.
One of the things that we have been experimenting with is player customization – I personally have been torn on what to do with that, as we did not want to give the impression that your loadout somehow affected your ability to solve puzzles, and I did not want to make vanity items that could be confused with free-to-play moneysinks. In the end though, personal expression is meaningful and with the simplicity of our art customization is a pretty quick thing to do. One of the things we’ve created for customization is the ability for the player to change the avatar color with this hue wheel.
We have mentioned and shown a couple of times that our basic level art is mainly made out of small chunks corresponding to pieces of geometry – flats and corners with different sizes and decorations. With colored outlines and world-mapped patterns this makes it relatively quick to add basic art to a level, but depending on the complexity of the geometry it can still take the better part of an hour.
Since we are only two people with limited time, a while back we added functionality to automate the placement of these pieces – removing the mundane tasks of giving the level shape and readability to allow us to focus on the creative side of making each level look distinct.
The brush is one of the central pieces of input in Backworlds – we have gone over a few iterations on how it works and we will probably go over some more, but these are some of the steps we have taken to get us where we are. Continue reading
Most of our data in Backworlds is stored in either XML or plain text. There are a lot of benefits to using human-readable data, it is usually trivial to add or remove information to the format without destroying backwards-compatibility and it is easy to make changes even before any tools have been written. That said, it is a lot less efficient than storing things in ready-made binary chunks and to reduce the performance loss we use a lot of hashing. Continue reading